Storytelling in World Cinemas: Contexts: 2

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They engage with debates about classicism and postclassicism and film form, narrative strategies in relation to industrial imperatives, and innovations in narrative style. Further, while many of these articles provocatively suggest that new contemporary forms of narrative have indeed become more complex, those that consider prior narrational modes within similarly shifting historical contexts suggest that we should be careful to equate change to complexity. As the means of telling stories via film and television are altered by new technologies, digital or otherwise, narrational development must be considered in relation to larger histories of the relationships between narrative, innovation, institution, and culture.

While the relationship between narrative and spectacle in Hollywood cinema has already been much discussed, Keating argues that previous theoretical models have proven inadequate for describing the complex interplay between story elements and visual attractions. He proposes a "cooperation" model that examines the ways in which narrative and spectacle work together in Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.

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What is Data Storytelling? | Data Stories Definition | Nugit

Brenda Laurel is one of them. In the article titled Creating Core Content in a Post-Convergence World , she took care to question the production models used in projects such as Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, pushing the transmedia concept beyond its incipient limits. According to the specialist, until that moment the transmedia creative processes had consisted exclusively in the reuse of content from one medium to another: from cinema to TV, from video game to cinema, from television to the Internet, from the doll to the web, from the cartoon to the radio, etc.

here In a post-convergent world, says Laurel, that will be an inefficient way of doing things. In that visionary article, the author predicted that via Internet Protocol IP , any type of content would be transmitted to and from any conceivable device. The researcher then identifies some necessary rules to design that core content. The first one is to think transmedia:. Among the other rules, she contemplates: creating environments, devising foundational narratives, providing rituals, encouraging the formation of communities, transforming audiences into authors, supporting the creation of personal identity, and creating treatments and scenarios for various devices and contexts.

Chapter Summary

For Vicente Gosciola , the key to this Laurel text lies in sustaining the need to abandon the old model of creation based on a medium and start thinking in transmedia terms from the bases of a project. In particular, in Transmedia Storytelling , the MIT researcher claims the need for a model of co-creation rather than the adaptation of the content that the media goes through. So far, the franchise system says Jenkins, generated redundant or disrespectful content of the narrative consistency expected by audiences.

For the researcher, this redundancy incinerates the interest of the fans, who hope that the new pieces offer new visions about the characters and new experiences of the fictional world. Perhaps one of the most cited passages of the extensive Jenkins bibliographic production is the following:. Each franchise entry needs to be self-contained enough to enable autonomous consumption. Jenkins, It is worth introducing it here to highlight the condition of autonomous consumption of media that the author underlines to size the functioning of a transmedia universe.


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Audiences bring their own prior knowledge, understandings, wants and needs and then use these to make their own meaning from it. There is also the social context in which an active audience interprets a media narrative. The audience might discuss with their friends the film they just saw and share what they thought of it, or they might go on social media to do the same. When an audience engages and consumes a media narrative can change their reading of it. The intended audience of a media narrative is the target audience for which the product was originally made.

Colour In Storytelling - CRISWELL - Cinema Cartography

The producer is able to shape the media narrative using codes and conventions especially for the audience. This knowledge of the audience may lead to a higher engagement with the product. The producer knows what the audience expects and can more easily meet these expectations. Depending on when the original product was produced, the producer may also be able to control how the media product is consumed. With film, even now generally the first intended audience will watch the narrative in a cinema where the producer has the most control over how it is consumed.


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However this is now changing with some films going straight to video on demand services or streaming services with a big loss of control of how they are consumed. This would have an impact in how those products are constructed to meet the wide variety of needs. When reading the media narrative, the intended audience will hopefully be likely to read the product how the producer intended.

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That all depends of course on the context of the production and their understanding of the product — which would be a lot more limited than present day audiences. A present day audience is an audience that will consume the media narrative now. The difference between the intended audience maybe a long time over years! In just a few months prior understandings, cultural contexts and personal understandings can shift dramatically.

Since the conventions of media change over time, a media product that was engaging to — and constructed by — an audience just a few years ago may not be engaging now. Acting might seem over the top, The plot could seem to drag and the genre conventions could have changed. Some audiences find it difficult to watch black and white films or find older horror films not as scary as newer ones. Present day audiences also have much broader options in terms of consumption. Although some industries may try to control the distribution of older texts, generally it will never be shown in the same way than it was to the intended audience.

Present day audience prefer convenience. Some say that this convenience makes media products not as valuable, or more disposable than ever before. If you are streaming a film — you are more likely to be distracted by your phone or even turn off the film quicker if any of it becomes not as engaging as you would hope.


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  7. Present day audiences may have a variety of different readings of a film then the intended audience will. This might be because the product is in a new context. It could be nominated for awards and be seen as more prestigious or be seen as a dud film and not to be taken seriously.