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As of —14, around million people are still vulnerable to food insecurity and 1. Moreover, the income gap between developing countries and advanced countries grew until recently. Figure 1 and income inequality within countries is increasingly diverging, 4 as measured by the Gini index. Figure 2. The sustained economic growth of developing countries over the last two decades is yet to converge into more equality in incomes, and disparaties and inequalities between and within countries are causing increasing social and political problems.

Why geography matters. Disparities and inequalities exist because the socioeconomic and policy dynamics of cities, regions, and countries are different from each other and often unique to a particular geographic area.

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Each locality or territory has a set of physical, human, financial, institutional and cultural resources that jointly constitute its asset endowment and development potential. Because each geographic area is unique, the outcome of a policy implemented in one area will not be the same as the outcome in another area, both in terms of both the direction positive or negative and magnitude of the impact. For example, if a government decides to expand its social protection policy on child undernutrition to a new district, the outcome of the policy will depend on a number of factors, such as the infrastructure and services present in that area.

The outcome in an area where infrastructure roads, clinics, schools, etc. Even when the outcome is positive in both areas, it may not be of the same magnitude. The variety of economic, political and social situations in different geographical areas is not systematically taken into account in food security and poverty reduction policy making, resulting in a disjunction between decision-making at the central level and implementation at the local level, as well as between the anticipated and actual outcomes of strategies and policies.

The role of a territorial approach. A vast and growing body of literature has highlighted the merits of a more localized approach to development. However, the literature concerning the application of this approach to food security and rural poverty reduction policies is much weaker.

Child welfare services and social media – childhood, being and becoming in a digital society

Food security and poverty are multi-dimensional, multi-sectoral and multi-level concepts, which cannot be addressed through only a sectoral approach. While food production and agricultural productivity remain important challenges for food security and rural poverty reduction in developing countries, in the past few decades an increased focus has been placed on access constraints to food.

These constraints are generally caused by economic, social, cultural and physical factors that are not related to the agricultural sector and strongly associated with the uniqueness of local conditions. To address this, the territorial approach proposes a systemic method that maps the diversity of the local socioeconomic dynamics, understands the root causes of food insecurity and poverty, assesses the diversity of response capacities to policy reforms and shocks, and ultimately reduces the risk of policy failure and improves the allocation of scarce resources.

Harvesting Child Nutritional Gains through the Graduation Approach

By placing the focus on intangible factors human capital and knowledge and on relational and network factors cooperation, partnerships, local culture, local vocations, communication networks, etc. From this perspective, the territorial approach does not replace previous approaches applied under various names by the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO and other international organizations, 8 but is an evolution of these approaches aimed at filling some of the gaps that make such approaches unfit to address the complexity of food security and poverty.

The main difference between the territorial approach and other approaches is a shift from a strong sector-based and supply-side focus towards a more holistic approach that takes into account other development opportunities, the interlinkages between the various dimensions of sustainable development social, economic, environmental, institutional , and the possible tensions and trade-offs between these dimensions, the stakeholders, and the policy options, as well as between local preferences and national priorities i.

For development strategies for food security, nutrition and rural poverty reduction to be effective under a territorial approach, four prerequisites must be in place — also called the four pillars of the 4Is model — namely: institutions and multi-level governance, information, inclusion and innovation.

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Institutions and multi-level governance:. The success of rural development policies depends on the capacity of the different stakeholders local, national and international to coordinate their actions within a broad governance framework. For many parents, the convenience of knowing where their kids are at all times is more than enough to warrant the price of a smartphone. But as with anything else, smartphones come with both their pros and their cons, and when you're talking about kids, the issue gets even trickier. There is a lot of peace of mind that comes from being able to contact your child wherever they are, and them being able to contact you.

Missed buses are no longer a problem, and the days of yelling your child's name up and down the street to try and find them are gone. Along with that peace of mind though, comes the niggling worry that every parent is used to having: is my child really safe? From cyberbullying to inappropriate web content, being able to contact strangers, being able to rack up hefty cell phone bills, all these things come to mind when we start thinking about the dangers of impressionable kids using a mobile. And truth be told, those dangers do exist. There's no avoiding the fact that you do run a risk by giving your child a mobile.

And add to that the fact that you might not be savvy enough to protect them, and the situation gets even more worrying. Most parents can remember the days before smartphones, and as much as we'd like to think that we're on top of the tech things in life, our kids just might be better.

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  • Today's generation grew up with the internet, smartphones, apps, and to them all these things are simply second nature. As a parent, protecting your child is of utmost importance. But the technological world changes quickly, not to mention how fast the trends and fads of an adolescent's world transform.

    There are plenty of general safety statements around that aim to help you protect your child and his phone, but these just aren't enough. Checking your kid's Facebook chat messages might seem like a great thing to do, until you realise that more and more kids aren't using Facebook chat anymore.

    It's just not cool. So which app are you supposed to be checking? If you really want to be on top of protecting your kid from the potential dangers of smart phone use, then the infographic below is exactly what you've been looking for. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Apr 2, SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads.

    Junior's First Device: Device Safety and Safest Phones for Kids

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